(1) What were the causes and consequences of the Spanish revolt that occurred after Charles left to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor? After Charles was crowned King of Spain, he left Spain to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor, but while he was gone there was a revolt in Spain. The people who revolted made a new ruler, Queen Joanna, Charles own mother. Around a year later the Comuneros were defeated at the battle of Villalar ending the revolt. 

(2) What were the causes of the Dutch revolt? What was the “demonstration effect”? According to The Memory, “The Dutch Revolt or Eighty Years’ War was a series of battles fought in the Netherlands between 1568 and 1648 which began when part of the Habsburg Empire resisted the, in their eyes, unjust rule of the Spanish King Philip II.” The “demonstration effect” is when people saw what other nations do, and try to implicate that into their own nation.

(3) Who were the contenting parties in the French wars of religion? What was the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre? What was the Edict of Nantes? According to Lumen, “The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name of a period of fighting between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots).” The Catholics didn’t like the Huguenots so they tried to get them to convert to Catholicism or to die. Eventually the Catholics asked the king if they could kill a bunch of Huguenots and the king agreed. This killing was called the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. Eventually, the Edict of Nantes was signed, ending the dispute between Catholics and Protestants.

(4) Describe the religious policy of Elizabeth I. Elizabeth never had a permanent religion. At some points she just had none and other point where nobody was sure. 

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