Frederic Bastiat and his Petition of the Candlemakers. Frederic Bastiat was a French libertarian and economist. He wrote many books, but he is commonly known for his book “The Law”. In an essay he wrote “Petition of the Candlemakers.” This is about candlemakers that are complaining that the sun is an unfair competition, because it gives light all day long for free. The candlemakers make everyone shut all their windows so no light will come through, then they will have to buy candles. This just makes everyone poorer. Bastiat ends this essay by writing “Make your choice, but be logical; for as long as you ban, as you do, foreign coal, iron, wheat, and textiles, in proportion as their price approaches zero, how inconsistent it would be to admit the light of the sun, whose price is zero all day long!”

Classical liberalism. According to Wikipedia, “Classical liberalism is a political tradition and a branch of liberalism that advocates free market and laissez-faire economics; civil liberties under the rule of law with especial emphasis on individual autonomy, limited government, economic freedom, political freedom and freedom of speech.” Liberty, individualism, and equal rights are the three main ideas of classical liberalism. Classical liberals believed these three things to require a free economy with no “help” from the government. 

Classical liberal themes that can be found in the work of Benjamin Constant. According to Wikipedia, “Constant emphasised how citizens in ancient states found more satisfaction in the public sphere and less in their private lives whereas modern people favoured their private life. Constant’s repeated denunciation of despotism pervaded his critique of French political philosophers Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Abbé de Mably.

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