According to Wikipedia “The Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government (or “home rule”) for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It was the dominant political movement of Irish nationalism from 1870 to the end of World War I.” Gladstone worked very hard to establish this, but in the end it failed and was rejected. 

The Kulturkampf. According to Wikipedia, the Kulturkampf was a “fierce conflict that took place from 1872 to 1878 between the Catholic Church led by Pope Pius IX and the government of Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck.” It began in 1871 and ended in 1887. The kulturkampf only took place in Prussia.

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